Abrams, Harold
Ain, Gregory
Alexander, Robert E.
Anderson, Guy
Antelline, Jon P.
Applebaum, Norm
Batter-Kay Associates
Beadle, Alfred
Beckett, Welton
Benedict, Hiram Hudson
Bernard, James
Bird, Fujimoto & Fish
Bonini, Vincent
Brownell, J. Herbert
Buff, Straub and Hensman
Campbell, Donald
Cody, William F.
Crane, Loch
Dammann, Bruce
Davis, Ronald K.
Decker, Arthur
Deems, Ward
Delawie, Homer
Des Lauriers, Robert
Drake, Gordon
Eckel, George
Eggers, Henry
Ellwood, Craig
Ferris, Robert
Fickett, Edward
Forester, Russell
Fowble, Robert
French, Stanley J.
Frey, Albert
Gill, Irving
Goldberg, Bertrand
Goldman, Donald
Gordon, Kenneth & Robert
Grossman, Greta
Hagadone, Walter
Harris, Harwell Hamilton
Henderson, John
Hester, Henry
Hope, Frank
Hufbauer, Clyde
Hubbell, James
Johnson, Philip
Jones, A. Quincy
Jones, Robert E.
Jung, Raymond
Kahn, Louis
Kellogg, Dick
Kellogg, Kendrick Bangs
Kesling, William
Killingsworth, Brady & Smith
Kowalski, Joseph
Krisel, William
Ladd, Thornton
Lareau, Richard
Lautner, John
Leitch, Richard
Lewis, Bill
Liebhardt, Frederick
Livingstone, Fred
Loring, Arthur
Lotery, Rex
Lumpkins, William
Lykos, George
Macy, Al
Malone, Ed
Marr, Clinton
Matthews, Roger
May, Cliff
McKim, Paul
Mitchell, Delmar
Mock, John
Mortenson, John
Mosher & Drew
Naegle, Dale
Neptune & Thomas
Neutra, Richard
Nomland & Nomland
Norris, Fred
Paderewski, CJ
Patrick, William
Paul & Allard
Paulson, Ted
Periera & Luckman
Platt, Robert
Ray, Eugene
Reed, John
Richards, Sim Bruce
Risley and Gould
Rosser, William
Ruocco, Lloyd

Salerno, Daniel
Schindler, Rudolph
Schoell & Geritz
Sigurdson, John
Simpson and Gerber
Skidmore, Owings and Merrill
Slatton, Bill
Soriano, Raphael
Spencer & Lee
Stimmel, William
Stone, Edward Durrell
Therkelsen, Lloyde
Tucker, Sadler & Bennett
Turner, Herb
Veitzer, Leonard
Vickery, Dean
Weir Brothers
Weston, Eugene III
Wheeler, Richard
Wright, Frank Lloyd
Wright, John Lloyd
Wright, Lloyd
Wulff and Fifield
Young, Richard

Irving John 'Jack' Gill

Irving J. Gill (ca 1910). Photo courtesy of San Diego History Center Photograph Collection (HERE).

Considered a pioneer of modern architecture, San Diegan Irving Gill died before many of the architects we profile here at Modern San Diego had started working. Elder statesemen of San Diego architecture like Sim Bruce Richards and Lloyd Ruocco were not only familiar with this work, they were disciples of Gill and supported the acknowledgment of his portfolio at a level he failed to achieve in his own lifetime.

Irving Gill was born in Tully, New York to Joseph Gill, a carpenter and farmer. Irving Gill had no formal education in architecture and never attended college. Instead, he apprenticed under architect Ellis G. Hall in Syracuse and then moved to Chicago, Illinois, working with Joseph Lyman Silsbee and later (and more importantly) under Dankmar Adler and Louis Sullivan. Historians have often commented that Frank Lloyd Wright was working in the Adler & Sullivan firm at the same time. While in the Adler & Sullivan studio, Gill worked on the Transportation Building for the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago.

Mr. Gill moved to San Diego in 1893, for health reasons, where he immediately launched his own architecture studio specializing in large residences in eclectic styles. He later had an 11-year partnership with William S. Hebbard that produced good work, important to San Diego County history but less known nationally. The Hebbard & Gill firm was known for work in the Tudor Revival style and later followed the Prairie School philosophy. The George W. Marston House, just west of Balboa Park, is among the most notable byproducts of this partnership.

Gill's 1907 partnership with Frank Mead, which lasted less than a year and completed only 4 houses, has been noted as a time of some of Gill's best work. The Bailey, Allen, Laughlin and M. Klauber residences were completed during this period.

In 1911, Irving Gill's nephew, Louis Gill, joined his firm as a draftsman. He would later be promoted to partner. Irving Gill, known as Jack to his friends, became a pioneer in rational, early modern design for residences and commercial buildings.

Unfortunately the architect lost an important commission for the Panama-California Exposition (1915), that established Balboa Park, to Bertram Goodhue but did design some work as an associate under Goodhue.

Though the Gill & Gill partnership lasted until 1919, Irving started living and working in Los Angeles before the two parted company. Multiple projects for the fledgling city of Torrance probably prompted this move north.

Irving Gill returned to live in North County in the 1920s though his work slowed considerably due to lingering illness, changing public tastes, and a diminishing desire to compromise with clients.

Gill was commissioned by Ellen Browning Scripps to design the La Jolla Woman's Club building. This prominently sited building (1912–14) is considered one of Gill's masterpieces. Here Gill used the "tilt-slab" construction technique to assemble the exterior walls on-site. This building was the first tilt-up concrete building in California, and despite Gill's association with this building method, he used it in only a handful of structures.

The most prominent Gill-designed project is probably the Electric Fountain in downtown San Diego. Despite being designed in the prime of his modernist period, it is atypical of his work at the time. The revivalist design was chosen in a competition among architects, and was one of the first projects in the country to combine water with electric-light effects.

Importance of the Work

Irving Gill was concerned with the social impact of good architecture, and worked with equal skill and interest on projects for bankers and mayors as he did on projects for reservation Indians, African American churchgoers, and for migrant Mexican workers and their children.

Gill's work established "a new beginning in life and art" and it represented a "grand rejection" of the common "architectural mise en scene from other times and places," according to historian Kevin Starr. His work was described as cubist in publications of the time.

The architect's interiors were concerned with removing unnecessary detailing, for reasons of economy and hygiene. His houses are known for minimal or flush mouldings, simple (or no) fireplace mantles, coved floor to wall transitions, enclosed-side bathtubs, frequent skylights, plastered walls with only the occasional, but featured, wood elements, flush five-piece doors, frequent concrete or Sorel cement floors, and a general avoidance of cracks, ledges, and unnecessary material changes. According to Joseph Giovannini, "...the desire for an easily maintained, sanitary home drove Gill's aesthetic toward purity.”

Aesthetically, Gill's best work of the 1910s is identified by flat roofs with no eaves, a unity of materials (mostly concrete), casement windows with transoms above, white or near-white exterior and interior walls, cube or rectangular massing, frequent ground-level arches or series of arches creating transitional breezeways in the manner of the California missions.

Despite frequent recent references to Gill as "forgotten" or "unappreciated " he was reasonably well documented during his life. For example, his work was more frequently published in Gustav Stickley’s Craftsman magazine than any other Western architect, including the firm of Greene & Greene.

Gill's reputation did quickly fade after his death, and it languished until he was included in the 1960 book Five California Architects by Esther McCoy and Randell L. Makinson. This book (still in print) helped to renew interest in his work, and in early California architecture in general. In the decades since its publication Irving Gill has come to be recognized as a major figure in the modern movement.

Partial List of Projects

Allen Residence. Photo courtesy of San Diego History Center Photograph Collection (HERE).

Allen, Russell C. Residence (1907)
4094 Old Orchard Lane, Bonita
Gill & Mead

Americanization School (1931)

Americanization School (1931)
1210 Division Street, Oceanside

Anderson, Monroe G. Residence (1904)
2257 Front Street
Hebbard & Gill

Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary Church (1932)
1932 Wildcat Canyon Road, Lakeside

Bailey Residence. Photo courtesy of San Diego History Center Photograph Collection (HERE).

Bailey, Wheeler J. Residence (1907)
7964 Princess Street, La Jolla
Gill & Mead

Bailey, Wheeler Guest Cottage  (1932)
7964 Princess St, La Jolla

Bailhache Residence 1898)
1022 Adella Avenue, Coronado

Balboa Park Administration Building (1911-12)
Attributed to Gill & Allen though Gill's role in its design is disputed

Barber, E. Milton Residence #1 (1904)
108 W. Robinson Avenue

Barber, E. Milton Residence (1909)
3934 3rd Avenue

Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church (1911-12)
3233 Market Street

Biological Station (1908-1910)
Scripps Institution of Oceanography

Bishop's Day School (1909)
3068 1st Avenue

Bishops School (1912)
La Jolla, CA

Blade Tribune and News Building (1936)
S. Tremont St & Seagaze Drive, Oceanside

Burnham, Frederick R. Residence
3565 7th Avenue

Chappell, Ida D. Residence (1903)
241 Ivy Street

Chase, E. F. Residence
205 W. Laurel Street

Christensen, J.P. Flats (1908-09)
312 22nd Street

Church of The Sacred Heart (1919-20)
7th St & C Avenue, Coronado
Gill & Gill

Churchill, Mendell C. Residence (1898)
1106 4th Street, Coronado
Hebbard & Gill

Clarke Estate (1919)

Clarke Estate (1919)
Santa Fe Springs

Coast Building
7467 Girard Avenue, La Jolla
Hebbard & Gill

Cossitt, Mary Residence #1 (1896)
1710 and 1718 Visalia Row

Cossitt, Mary Residence #2
1037 Star Park Circle, Coronado

Cossitt, Mary Residence #3 (1899)
1127 Flora Avenue, Coronado

Cossitt, Mary Residence #4 (1906)
3526 7th Avenue
Hebbard & Gill

Cossitt, Mary Residence #5 (1910)
3729 8th Avenue

Cossitt, Mary Residence #6 (1910)
3735 8th Avenue

Cossitt, Mary Residence #7 (1910)
3749 8th Avenue

Cossitt, Mary Residence #8 (1910)
3757 8th Avenue

3506 Albatross Street

Crouse, Warren M. Residence (1904)
2600 1st Avenue

Darst, Annie B. Flats (1908-1909)
2266 5th Avenue

Dodge, Walter L. (1914-16)
West Hollywood

Easton, George Residence (1908)
3353 2nd Avenue

Electric Fountain (1910)
Horton Plaza

Experimental Cottage (1908)
3735 Robinson Mews

F. B. Lewis Courts (aka Bella Vista Terrace) (1910)
Sierra Madre, CA

Ferry Smith, Sam Residence (1906)
2230 4th Avenue
Hebbard & Gill

Fire and Police Station (1929-31)
Pier View Way & N Nevada Street, Oceanside

First Church of Christ Scientist (1927-28)
8th St & C Avenue, Coronado

First Church Christ Scientist (1909)
2450 2nd Avenue

First Lutheran Church (1904-06)
1420 3rd Avenue

First Church of Christ Scientist #1 (1904-05)
317 W Ash Street

Fox, Charles Residence
3100 Brant Street

Frost, Abel H. Residence (1897)
2456 Broadway

Garrettson, George Residence (1896)

Garrettson, George Residence (1896)
2410 E Street

Gerichtoen-Choate-Peterson Building  (1894)
820-836 5th Avenue
Falkenham & Gill

Gill, Irving Cottage (1903)
3709 Albatross Street

Gill, Irving Cottage  (1904-05)
2488 L Street

Gill, Irving Cottage  (1904-05)
146 25th Street

Gill, Irving Triplex (1908)
2119-2123 Albatross Street

Gill, Irving Cottage (1906)
3776 Front Street
Hebbard & Gill

Gilman Hall, The Bishops School (1916-17)
7607 La Jolla Blvd.

Gould, E. B.  House (c. 1914)
2333 Albatross Street
Attributed to Hebbard & Gill

Grove, Edward Residence (1905)
2243 Front Street

Granger Music Hall (1896)
1615 E 4th Street, National City

Hamilton, Charles S. house (1905)
3583 6th Avenue
Hebbard & Gill

Hawley, George M. Residence #2 (1907)
4744 Panorama Drive
Hebbard & Gill

Horatio West Court (1919)

Horatio West Court (1919)
140 Hollister Street, Santa Monica

Horton, David K. Residence (1895)
1504 E 22nd Street, National City

Johnson, Mary C. Residence (1905);
2233 Front Street
Hebbard & Gill

Kautz, George Residence (1913)
7753 Draper Avenue, La Jolla

Kendall, John Residence (1894)
1328 Virginia Way
Falkenham & Gill

Klauber, Hugo Residence
2626 6th Avenue

Klauber, Melville Residence
3060 6th Ave

Kleine, John H. Residence #1 (1897-98)
9627 Prospect Avenue, Lakeside
Hebbard & Gill

Kleine, John H. Residence #2 (1906)
9706 Channel Road, Lakeside
Hebbard & Gill

Kroenert, George Residence (1899)
1471 8th Avenue

La Jolla Recreation Center (1910-16)
La Jolla, CA

La Jolla Women's Club

La Jolla Women's Club under construction.
Photo courtesy of San Diego History Center Photograph Collection (HERE).

La Jolla Women's Club (1912-14)
715 Silverado Street, La Jolla

Las Flores Hotel (1912-13)
725 4th Avenue

Lee, Alice Residence #1 (1905)
3574 7th Avenue
Hebbard & Gill

Lee, Alice #2 (1905)
3578 7th Avenue
Hebbard & Gill

Lee, Alice Residence #3 (1912-13)
3367 Albatross Street

Lee, Alice Residence #4 (1912-13)
3353 Albatross Street

Marston, Arthur H. Residence (1909)
3575 7th Avenue

George W. Marston Residence (1904-05) by Hebbard & Gill

Marston, George W. Residence (1904-05)
3525 7th Avenue
Hebbard & Gill

Mayer, Edward house (1903)
2240 5th Ave

Mckenzie, Flint and Winsby Corp. (aka Buell-Town Building) (1897)
5th Ave & K Street
Hebbard & Gill

Mills Residence (1900)
1604 7th Avenue

Miltimore Residence (1911)
Pasadena, CA

Mission Revival Episcopal Church (1898)
3725 30th Street, San Diego
*This project was moved in 1924 to 30th Street from its original 6th Ave location (having been moved within its lot before that)

Mitchell, Bertha B. Residence (1904-05)
2720 4th Avenue

Moylan, Miles Residence (1894)
2214 2nd Avenue
Falkenham & Gill

Nichols, Mr. Gail Cottage (1897)
750 Adella Avenue, Coronado

Nichols, Harry W. Residence
1718 A Avenue, Coronado

Oatman, Homer C. Residence (1906)
2437 2nd Avenue
Hebbard & Gill

Oceanside City Hall (1934)
704 Pier View Way, Oceanside

Osborn, John Residence (1897)
2073 Logan Avenue
Hebbard & Gill

Pacific Electric Railroad Bridge (1913)

Parmelee, Edmund F. Residence (1906)
202-204 W. Ivy Street

Peter M. Price Residence #1 (1908-09)

Price, Peter M. Residence #1 (1908-09)
1355 Granada Avenue

Price, Peter M. Residence #2 (1908-09)
1345 Granada Avenue

Private Residence
1517 Ynez Place

Private Residence
1060 Adella Avenue

Private Residence
3370 Brant Street

Private Residence
1371 Granada Avenue

Private Residence (1910)
2204-06 Albatross Street

Private Residence
3404 Front Street

Protoype Workers' Cottage (1908)
3721 Albatross Street

Prototype Worker's Cottages (1906)
3733 Robinson Mews

Puterbaugh, Johnson Residence (1902)
2970 2nd Avenue
Hebbard & Gill

Raymond House (1918)

Raymond House (1918)
2724 Ocean Boulevard, Long Beach

Richards, Bartlett Residence (1901-02);
1015 Ocean Blvd, Coronado

Rucker, Peru Residence (1911)
3130 6th Avenue

Rynearson House (1898)
2441 E Street
Attributed to Hebbard & Gill

Schuyler, Daniel House (1893)
838-842 25th Street

Scripps, Ellen Cottage (1897)
780 Prospect Street, La Jolla
Hebbard & Gill

Scripps, Ellen B. Residence (1908)
700 Prospect Street, La Jolla

Scripps Residence. Photo courtesy of San Diego History Center Photograph Collection (HERE).

Scripps, Ellen Browning Residence (ca. 1913-1915)
Prospect Street, La Jolla
Remodeled considerably to become what is now MCASD

Scripps Recreation Center (1913-15)
615 Prospect Street, La Jolla

Smith, Capt. W. Mifflin Residence
2508 1st Avenue

Stephens, Anson P. Residence (1898)
723 A Avenue, Coronado
Hebbard & Gill

Stephens, Anson P. Residence (1898)
711 A Avenue, Coronado
Hebbard & Gill

Sterrett, Mary A. Residence
542 22nd Street

Stewart, William Residence (1904)
942 23rd Street

St. James Chapel (1907-08)
627 Genter Street, La Jolla

St. Paul's Rectory
408 Nutmeg Street

Strong-Schlink Cottage #1 (1911)
2104 Front Street

Strong-Schlink Cottage #1 #2 (1911)
220 W Hawthorn Street

Strong-Schlink Cottage #1 #3 (1911)
212 W Hawthorn Street

Tammen, George Residence (1903)
2437 Market Street

Teats, Katherine Residence #1 (1905)
3560 7th Avenue
Hebbard & Gill

Teats, Katherine Residence #2 (1912-13)
3415 Albatross Street

Teats, Katherine Residence #3 (1912-13)
3407 Albatross Street

Thompson, Percival Residence (1910-1911)
1156 Isabella Ave, Coronado

Tutt, Arles L. Residence (1906)
1007 Ocean Blvd, Coronado

Waterman Residence (1900)
237 W Hawthorn Street

Waverly Ranch
Hillsdale Road, El Cajon

Wheaton, Sherwood Residence
3102 6th Avenue

White, Ernest E. Residence (1898)
136 Redwood Street
Hebbard & Gill

Wilde Duplex (1919)
544 D Avenue and 545 Palm Avenue, Coronado
With Louis J. Gill

Williams Residence (1908)
Sequoia National Forest

Wilson-Acton Hotel (1908)
1116 Prospect Street, La Jolla

Wincote, Marion L. Residence (1903)
3720 7th Avenue
Hebbard & Gill

Wood, Samuel L. Residence (1905)
2424-6 C Street
Hebbard & Gill

Boat House and Dock. Photo courtesy of San Diego History Center Photograph Collection (HERE).

ZLAC Boat House and Dock